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scholarly articles on racism

Race, Racism, and Discrimination: Bridging Problems, Methods, and Theory in Social Psychological Research* LAWRENCE D. BOBO CYBELLE FOX Harvard University Scholars spanning the social sciences and humanities wrestle with the complex and often contested meanings of race, racism, and discrimination. In all of this enterprise, soci-. Exposing Bias: Race and Racism in America. Racism arose in order to justify the enslavement of Africans — not whites — in the context of the Atlantic Slave trade. Later, racism served to justify the legally-sanctioned second-class citizenship of American blacks — not whites. Today, racism underwrites extra-legal discrimination against. institutional racism is defined as a complex of embedded, systemic practices that disadvantage racial and ethnic minority groups, and, in consequence, needs 1 Seabrook and Wyatt-Nichol: The Ugly Side of America: Institutional Oppression and Race Published by .


Exposing Bias: Racism in America | Harvard Extension


A candid interview between journalist Robert Fieseler and anthropologists Dr. Michael Baran and Dr. Back inin Ann Arbor, journalist Robert Fieseler was an undergraduate at the University of Michigan, scholarly articles on racism, during a time when the university was fighting to preserve affirmative action, scholarly articles on racism.

On the same campus PhD candidates in the globally ranked anthropology department were publishing breakthrough dissertations on race as a cultural construct—in the United States and around the world. Among that cohort were names like James Herron and Michael Baran, future scholars in the field and current instructors at Harvard University.

Sixteen years later, in the wake of the Supreme Court decision in Fisher v. University of Texas, during a time when racial tensions in the United States are high, the three Michigan alumni gathered to discuss the concept of race, the value of affirmative action, and the ways future generations should be taught about race.

Herron: Race or racial ideology runs deep in our history and culture, scholarly articles on racism. In certain ways, scholarly articles on racism, it's at the core of our political culture. Our identities are shaped by race. So, given its centrality in our history, it's not surprising that it continues to be relevant.

If you think about it, what is race? What is racism? At its most basic level, racism is a lens through which people interpret, naturalize, and reproduce inequality. Race developed at a very particular point in time as our nation was forming. We had, on the one hand, these national ideals of freedom and equality. And, on the other hand, we had this economic reality of a slavery system that was part of the transatlantic slave trade.

So, basically, this ideology developed to justify how slaves weren't equal biologically. A great book by Steven J. Gould called The Mismeasure of Man exposes the bad science. But we scholarly articles on racism have this ideology persisting today. Herron: These pseudo-scientific forms of racism purported to show that there were natural, biological differences between human groups. In fact, that's what anthropology was for years— a sort of "racial science.

Baran: Our culture has shown through countless examples that people's potentials are not based on these racial groups. Up until this election cycle, I would have said that we were living in a time when explicit racism has been on the decline.

But current political discourse aside, implicit, unconscious bias is still everywhere, with large, concrete consequences for people's lives—voting rights, access to education, employment, treatment by law enforcement and the criminal justice system. So then I find myself asking, why do we continue to think racially?

Why do these groups persist, and why do we still have bias against certain groups? A prominent historian named C. Why did this system of formal segregation in public venues exist in the American South? Was it really about exploiting the labor of blacks, as in slavery? Or was it something else altogether? Woodward argues that Jim Crow arose to cement a class alliance between poor whites, working class whites, and elite whites.

The white southern elite greatly feared the possibility that poor blacks and poor whites would join together around a common cause, scholarly articles on racism. Before the advent of Jim Crow, there were stories of such alliances. Instructor John Paul Rollert discusses the role of ethics and empathy in politics and lessons from the presidential campaign.

We can see then how Jim Crow laws were deployed to create a black and white divide among the working class. I find that argument quite persuasive, and you can even observe it today. You certainly scholarly articles on racism that in the presidential campaign. An elite person, like Donald Trump, attempts to forge a link with working class whites.

But his interests and their interests are quite different, right? What's good for Donald Trump is not what's good for a working class person in Iowa.

But one can ask: Why the demonizing of immigrants? We are doing solid research on this topic, and so are researchers in other disciplines. We need the general public to understand that racial attitudes can be researched, scholarly articles on racism, and we can take the findings and learn from them. That's going to inform how we move forward as a country. Baran: Children come into the world prepared to learn certain things.

And they actively learn them. You don't have to teach it to them. Children learn language effortlessly, even though language is incredibly complex. A developing child also tries to determine which social groups will be important.

The child just learned a lot about the world from this remark. She learned that this new term is really important. And she learned that her mother is excited or angry or sarcastic about it, depending on the tone of voice. Their brains are trying to understand power dynamics. But you've also got adults—and here, I'm mostly talking about white adults—who won't talk to their children about race.

And it's often for good intentions. But, if you're that kid trying to figure things out, and adults won't talk to you about it, you learn that it's taboo. So you go about learning from other sources, some of which are less thoughtful, like the media, movies, the proverbial uncle at Thanksgiving, and friends your own age. And also you learn from subtle behaviors, like parents locking their car door in certain neighborhoods. Explicitly, parents teach kids the basic lessons: Treat everyone equally.

Don't discriminate. Everyone is the same. We're all good. But kids end up developing these implicit or unconscious associations that have numerous effects: in school and at work and at home and in the court system. Herron: Racial ideologies are fundamentally judgments about who is worthy, who is decent, who belongs, and who doesn't. Inclusion and exclusion.

The contexts you mention with admissions, those are areas where people are called to make judgments of other people, scholarly articles on racism. So it's inevitable that racial issues come up in those contexts. For most of our history, those biases explicitly excluded people who were not considered white. Today it still happens, but more implicitly, scholarly articles on racism.

Just look at that recent Yale Child Study Center study showing that even preschool teachers expect and watch for problem behavior more from black boys. This leads to more discipline, more suspensions and expulsions, and exclusion from all the benefits of education.

Racial ideologies are fundamentally judgments about who is worthy, who is decent, who belongs, and who doesn't. James Herron. Herron: I think that people who say affirmative action is unjust lack any structural understanding of race.

They simply don't understand how racism works. Opponents of affirmative scholarly articles on racism are often individualistic in how they think about the topic. They just think, there are two individuals: a white person and a black person, scholarly articles on racism.

And, hypothetically, the white person in this case is more qualified than the black person. Therefore, the scholarly articles on racism person should be admitted. But that's a myopic scholarly articles on racism. If you understand that we live in a society that systematically channels resources toward white people at the expense of black people, then you realize something: the fact that this white person is more qualified might itself be unfair, scholarly articles on racism.

Herron: In some ways, we take this approach to stay focused on the future. Many commentators and anthropologists are arguing that a majority—minority United States is going to function more like Latin America in terms of race. To put it crudely, in Latin America race and racial ideas are generally more fluid. Color and social status are more loosely linked than they are in America.

For instance, in Brazil, knowing someone's color is a clue about his or her social status, but scholarly articles on racism not the only piece of information that you need to know.

Are they wealthy? Are they educated? What kind of job do they have? Color is part of what determines social status, but it's just one part. But for a long time in the United States, someone's race was actually scholarly articles on racism strong clue to their social status—at least people thought it was, scholarly articles on racism. If you knew someone was white or black or Asian or Hispanic, you thought you knew more about that person in terms of where they stood in society. Herron: Yes.

I think it surprises and even shocks them to learn that race can behave and function differently. The material does what any good anthropology course should do: it forces students to relativize their own worldview. They come to understand that race isn't a natural, universal way of perceiving the world. Baran: Race is so interesting because it's probably the best case of opening people's eyes to the whole field of scholarly articles on racism anthropology in general.

 

 

scholarly articles on racism

 

Looking for articles relating to education? Education Abstracts/Full Text The basic index for finding articles relating specifically to the applied and theoretical aspects of education. Indexes over English language journals in education. Indexes many journals back to , and, beginning with , includes many full text articles. Find articles. with all of the words. with the exact phrase. with at least one of the words. without the words. where my words occur. anywhere in the article. in the title of the article. Return articles authored by. e.g., "PJ Hayes" or McCarthy. Return articles published in. e.g., J Biol Chem or Nature. Black Lives Matter: A Commentary on Racism and Public Health. The recent nonindictments of police officers who killed unarmed Black men have incited popular and scholarly discussions on racial injustices in our legal system, racialized police violence, and police (mis)conduct. Racism, defined earlier, is.